Statistical Analysis of Causes of Facial Injuries

By Vishaal on Sunday, December 2, 2007 with 0 comments

Numerous statistical analyses of facial injuries show both causes of these injuries and their locations.

  • the majority of injured people are males (86%)

  • the majority of patients are between 20 and 29 years old

  • the most common causes of isolated injuries of the lower jaw are criminal acts (batteries and fights), more than 40% of cases

  • the most common causes of isolated injuries of the middle facial third are traffic accidents (more than 49%)

  • the highest injury increase rate of all transportation vehicles was at bicycles (more than 24%)

  • the lower jaw gets hurt more frequently than the middle facial third during isolated injuries(2:1)

  • poly-traumatic injuries show the opposite ratio, the middle facial third gets injured more frequently

  • the lower jawbone’s body and angles get broken most often (64%)

  • for the middle facial third, the most common is a fracture of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (53%)

  • luxation or subluxation affects mostly the teeth of the upper jaw (72%)

  • soft tissues of the chin and cheeks get injured most often, followed by tissues of the upper lip and nose.

X-ray examination.

An X-ray examination belongs to the basic methods in diagnostics of fractures. It is employed at all cases. Both extra-oral imaging of the skull and intra-oral images are used to diagnose injuries of jawbones (the alveolar ridge) and the teeth. It is advantageous to use a panoramic imaging and ortho-pantomograms.

Native images of the skull are taken at the basic projections (anteroposterior, lateral and semiaxial) with the aim of clarifying the nature of an injury from more projections, perpendicular if possible.

To elucidate some types of injuries (hydraulic fractures of orbits), tomograms or other special projections onto the temporo-mandibular joint, zygomatic arch, orbits etc. are utilized.

For detailed observation of fracture lines at fractures of the middle third of the face and craniomaxillar fractures, the CT examination under various projections is often used, as well as a special 3D software.

Documentation and administrative activities.

A documentation has to be filed for all cases of injuries using obligatory forms (case history, daily records, the card of an outpatient treatment). Attention has to be paid to confession of a patient or an accompanying person about the causes of injury. It may influence both legal and expert examinations as well as patient’s compensation at later times. Injuries caused by other person(s) have to be announced to legal bodies and to health insurance companies. An eventual influence of alcohol should be recorded and the alcohol blood test should be performed upon request of competent organs.

Category: Oro-Maxillo Facial Surgery Notes



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