Tumours Of The Oral Cavity

By Dr. Vishaal Bhat on Saturday 5 January 2008 with 0 comments



  1. Benign epithelial proliferations

Squamous papilloma

  • Most common oral neoplasm—believed to be caused by HPV

  • Painless exophytic mass with warty surface, usually <>


  1. Premalignant lesions


Leukoplakia

  • Clinical term for a white patch occurring on the surface of a mucous membrane

  • In the mouth, the term is used to include only those white patches or plaques that will not rub off, and that are not caused by another oral disease

  • Has been associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse

  • Most common in fifth to seventh decade; M>F

  • Lesions may be localized or diffuse; vary from faintly translucent areas to thick fissured, indurated lesions

  • 6% lesions will have carcinoma; additional 4% will undergo malignant transformation


Erythroplakia (erythroplasia of Queyrat)

  • Initially described as syphilitic lesion of the glans penis—then recognized to also occur on vulva and oral mucosa in patients who are not syphilitic

  • Sixth to seventh decades; M=F

  • Defined as bright red velvety plaques not due to any other condition (e.g.gingivitis, candidiasis, hemangioma); unlike leukoplakia, almost all lesions will prove to be squamous dysplasia or carcinoma on biopsy


  1. Malignant epithelial proliferations


Squamous cell carcinoma

  • Account for majority of intraoral cancers; tobacco use and alcohol abuse implicated as causative factors; role of viruses (e.g. HPV,EBV) being investigated

  • Predominantly affects males > 50 yr.

  • Can present as mucosal ulcer, exophytic growth, endophytic growth, leukoplakia, erythroplakia or painless lymphadenopathy

  • Commonest sites of involvement are the tongue, lip and floor of mouth

  • Spread primarily by local extension and lymphatic dissemination; distant sites of involvement include lungs, bone and liver

  • 5year survival rates are 75% for localized disease, 41% for regional cases and18% for cases with distant metastases


  1. Nonepithelial tumours and tumour-like lesions

  • Cysts of the gingiva, mucosa and jaw

  • Benign soft tissue lesions (e.g. pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, schwannoma)

  • Malignant soft tissue lesions (e.g. rhabdomyosarcoma)

  • Lymphomas

  • Odontogenic tumors (e.g. ameloblastoma)

  • Tumours of the jaw (e.g. fibrous dysplasia, giant cell tumours, bone and cartilaginous tumours)

Category: Oral Pathology Notes

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