Prosthetic Dentistry

By Dr. Vishaal Bhat on Friday 7 December 2007 with 0 comments

Prosthetic dentistry deals with replacements of lost teeth or their parts, parts of alveolar ridges and soft tissues of the oral cavity or the face.

Artificial dental replacements are called stomatologic prostheses (dentures). Their significance is both medical and social. The medical importance lays in therapy and prevention. The social importance means a possibility for a patient with affected dentition to re-enter his/her career and a social life.

Dentures should meet requirements of functionality, phonation, esthetic look and health. Dentures can be divided into crown prostheses, teeth prostheses, and fixed or removable ones. Depending on a way of the chewing pressure transmission, prostheses may be divided into dental, dento-mucosal, and mucous.

The teeth to which a prosthesis is fixed, are called abutments. According to their biological factor, these teeth can be divided into three classes. The biological factor of teeth depends on teeth shape, cariousness, periodontal diseases, teeth developmental anomalies and alveolar ridges atrophy.

Teeth losses result in defects of dentition that are classified to three classes according to Voldřich:

I. class A gap, up to four adjacent teeth wide, bounded by the first class pillar teeth.

II. class A shortened dental arch. It is replaced by a dento-mucosal denture. The first class teeth is replaced by dental prostheses.

III. class Defects that do not belong to the above two classes. These are usually replaced with dento-mucosal or mucous prostheses.

Dentures are made according to a model that can be obtained by the direct method, i.e. by modeling a pre-made prosthesis directly inside a mouth, or by the indirect method that includes forming pre-made structure on a situation model. Metal dentures or their parts are made by casting into a mold by the “vanished wax” technique. Resin dentures are formed according to a wax model of a prosthesis inside a flask filled with plaster. After the wax model is melted and drained, a cavity inside the plaster is stuffed with resin paste that polymerizes inside the flask under pressure.

Category: Prosthodontics Notes



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