First Aid During Facial Injuries

By Dr. Vishaal Bhat on Sunday 2 December 2007 with 0 comments



The basic goal of the first aid is to save life of an injured person. First aid can be either technical which removes causes of an injury (rescue work, elimination of physical or chemical influences), or medical. The effectiveness of first aid depends on abilities and equipment of persons who perform it. Delivering the first aid to persons with facial injuries has to follow general rules supplemented with a specific procedure as follows:

  • Freeing airways from foreign objects, blood and vomits; placing a person at the stabilized position, i.e. lying at his/her side with the head turned aside, or lying on his/her belly with the head bolstered (prevents choking and aspiration of saliva, blood etc.)

  • Bleeding is stopped with a bandage; bleeding from an artery is stopped by pressing the artery against a bone. Tamponing can be used to stop bleeding from nose or open wound..

  • Transport of a patient to the nearest medical facility or directly to a specialized clinic.


Injuries of the lower jaw.

The lower jaw with its U-shaped bone is an exposed edge part of the facial skeleton.

The lower jawbone is covered with a compact bone tissue of various thickness. It is the thickest at the chin area outside of the third molars and at the bottom ridge. At the lower part of the jawbone’s branch and its body, there is the mandibular canal that appears as a lighter band inside the spongy tissue on X-ray images.

The knowledge about the canal’s route and position is important for placement of osteo-synthetic materials. The alveolar ridge is seated on the jawbone’s body. The alveolar ridge gets atrophied upon the teeth loss at old age. The mandible is attached to the skull by ligaments and mandibular joints.

Muscles that are attached to the lower jaw play a basic role in shifting pieces of broken bone. A group of depressors attach to the front part of the lower jawbone (m. mylohyoideus, geniohyoideus, genioglossus and the front belly of m. digastricus). These muscles draw the lower jaw downwards and backwards while resting against the hyoid bone positioned opposite to the mandible caudally and dorsally and fixed by draw of muscles downwards. Pieces of bone are drawn by these muscles generally downwards and to the front.

The group of elevators that attach to the back part of the lower jawbone (m. pterygoideus med., m. masseter, m. temporalis) draw pieces of bone upwards and more to the front.

Blood supply to the lower jawbone is ensured by two systems. The central system stems from a. alveolaris inf., and the peripheral system from the periosteum. Heavy bleeding does not occur during fractures of the lower jawbone.

Category: Oro-Maxillo Facial Surgery Notes

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