Classification of Fractures of the Middle Facial Third

By Dr. Vishaal Bhat on Monday 26 November 2007 with 0 comments



At the beginning of the 20th century, anatomist who lived in Paris, René Le Fort described and classified 3 basic types of fractures of the maxilla , based on experimental studies on heads of corpses. As technology progressed and speed of transportation increased, kinetic energy of moving persons or objects become higher. Placement of fracture lines has changed as well. Despite that, the classical division is still in use and has its own firm place among systems of classification of fractures of the facial middle part.


The facial middle third can be divided into central and lateral (side) parts. The division line goes from the nasofrontal suture along the inner edge of orbit towards the foramen infraorbitale, and towards the connecting point of a zygomatic bone with the maxilla ’s body (this is the fracture line Le Fort type II.). Injuries of the central part are often accompanied by serious complications.


  1. Fractures of the central part.

    1. lower (suborbital) layer: fractures do not affect orbits, they are located underneath them.

      1. fractures of the alveolar ridge

      2. fractures Le Fort type I, lower sub-zygomatic fracture

      3. sagittal fracture of palatal bones and maxilla s

    2. upper (sub-basal) layer: fractures affect orbits, as well as the ethmoidal bone at the inter-orbital area.

      1. isolated fracture of nasal bones

      2. fracture of the naso-maxillar complex

      3. fracture Le Fort type II., upper sub-zygomatic fracture

  2. Fractures of the lateral part.

      1. zygomatic arch fracture

      2. fracture of the zygomatic-maxillar complex

  3. Combined fractures of central and lateral parts.

      1. fracture Le Fort type III., supra-zygomatic fracture.

Category: Oro-Maxillo Facial Surgery Notes

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